Križaj, Janez; Štruc, Vitomir; Mihelič, France
In: Proceedings of the Mexican Conference on Pattern Recognition (MCPR), pp. 142–151, Springer 2014.
Despite the progress made in the area of local image descriptors in recent years, virtually no literature is available on the use of more recent descriptors for the problem of 3D face recognition, such as BRIEF, ORB, BRISK or FREAK, which are binary in nature and, therefore, tend to be faster to compute and match, while requiring signicantly less memory for storage than, for example, SIFT or SURF. In this paper, we try to close this gap and present a feasibility study on the use of these descriptors for 3D face recognition. Descriptors are evaluated on the three challenging 3D face image datasets, namely, the FRGC, UMB and CASIA. Our experiments show the binary descriptors ensure slightly lower verication rates than SIFT, comparable to those of the SURF descriptor, while being an order of magnitude faster than SIFT. The results suggest that the use of binary descriptors represents a viable alternative to the established descriptors.
Križaj, Janez; Štruc, Vitomir; Dobrišek, Simon; Marčetić, Darijan; Ribarić, Slobodan
In: 37th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), pp. 1336–1341, Mipro Opatija, Croatia, 2014.
Many techniques in the area of 3D face recognition rely on local descriptors to characterize the surface-shape information around points of interest (or keypoints) in the 3D images. Despite the fact that a lot of advancements have been made in the area of keypoint descriptors over the last years, the literature on 3D-face recognition for the most part still focuses on established descriptors, such as SIFT and SURF, and largely neglects more recent descriptors, such as the FREAK descriptor. In this paper we try to bridge this gap and assess the usefulness of the FREAK descriptor for the task for 3D face recognition. Of particular interest to us is a direct comparison of the FREAK and SIFT descriptors within a simple verification framework. To evaluate our framework with the two descriptors, we conduct 3D face recognition experiments on the challenging FRGCv2 and UMBDB databases and show that the FREAK descriptor ensures a very competitive verification performance when compared to the SIFT descriptor, but at a fraction of the computational cost. Our results indicate that the FREAK descriptor is a viable alternative to the SIFT descriptor for the problem of 3D face verification and due to its binary nature is particularly useful for real-time recognition systems and verification techniques for low-resource devices such as mobile phones, tablets and alike.
Križaj, Janez; Dobrišek, Simon; Štruc, Vitomir; Pavešić, Nikola
In: Proceedings of the Electrotechnical and Computer Science Conference (ERK'13), 2013.
The paper presents a novel framework to 3D face recognition that exploits region covariance matrices (RCMs), Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The proposed framework first combines several 3D face representations at the feature level using RCM descriptors and then derives low-dimensional feature vectors from the computed descriptors with the unscented transform. By doing so, it enables computations in Euclidean space, and makes Gaussian mixture modeling feasible. Finally, a support vector classifier is used for identity inference. As demonstrated by our experimental results on the FRGCv2 and UMB databases, the proposed framework is highly robust and exhibits desirable characteristics such as an inherent mechanism for data fusion (through the RCMs), the ability to examine local as well as global structures of the face with the same descriptor, the ability to integrate domain-specific prior knowledge into the modeling procedure and consequently to handle missing or unreliable data.
Križaj, Janez; Štruc, Vitomir; Dobrišek, Simon
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition and Workshops (IEEE FG), Workshop on 3D Face Biometrics, IEEE, Shanghai, China, 2013.
The paper introduces a novel framework for 3D face recognition that capitalizes on region covariance descriptors and Gaussian mixture models. The framework presents an elegant and coherent way of combining multiple facial representations, while simultaneously examining all computed representations at various levels of locality. The framework first computes a number of region covariance matrices/descriptors from different sized regions of several image representations and then adopts the unscented transform to derive low-dimensional feature vectors from the computed descriptors. By doing so, it enables computations in the Euclidean space, and makes Gaussian mixture modeling feasible. In the last step a support vector machine classification scheme is used to make a decision regarding the identity of the modeled input 3D face image. The proposed framework exhibits several desirable characteristics, such as an inherent mechanism for data fusion/integration (through the region covariance matrices), the ability to examine the facial images at different levels of locality, and the ability to integrate domain-specific prior knowledge into the modeling procedure. We assess the feasibility of the proposed framework on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge version 2 (FRGCv2) database with highly encouraging results.
Križaj, Janez; Štruc, Vitomir; Dobrišek, Simon
Robust 3D Face Recognition Journal Article
In: Electrotechnical Review, vol. 79, no. 1-2, pp. 1-6, 2012.
Face recognition in uncontrolled environments is hindered by variations in illumination, pose, expression and occlusions of faces. Many practical face-recognition systems are affected by these variations. One way to increase the robustness to illumination and pose variations is to use 3D facial images. In this paper 3D face-recognition systems are presented. Their structure and operation are described. The robustness of such systems to variations in uncontrolled environments is emphasized. We present some preliminary results of a system developed in our laboratory.