Štruc, Vitomir; Križaj, Janez; Dobrišek, Simon
Modest face recognition Inproceedings
In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF), pp. 1–6, IEEE, 2015.
The facial imagery usually at the disposal for forensics investigations is commonly of a poor quality due to the unconstrained settings in which it was acquired. The captured faces are typically non-frontal, partially occluded and of a low resolution, which makes the recognition task extremely difficult. In this paper we try to address this problem by presenting a novel framework for face recognition that combines diverse features sets (Gabor features, local binary patterns, local phase quantization features and pixel intensities), probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and data fusion based on linear logistic regression. With the proposed framework a matching score for the given pair of probe and target images is produced by applying PLDA on each of the four feature sets independently - producing a (partial) matching score for each of the PLDA-based feature vectors - and then combining the partial matching results at the score level to generate a single matching score for recognition. We make two main contributions in the paper: i) we introduce a novel framework for face recognition that relies on probabilistic MOdels of Diverse fEature SeTs (MODEST) to facilitate the recognition process and ii) benchmark it against the existing state-of-the-art. We demonstrate the feasibility of our MODEST framework on the FRGCv2 and PaSC databases and present comparative results with the state-of-the-art recognition techniques, which demonstrate the efficacy of our framework.
Dobrišek, Simon; Gajšek, Rok; Mihelič, France; Pavešić, Nikola; Štruc, Vitomir
Towards efficient multi-modal emotion recognition Journal Article
In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 10, no. 53, 2013.
The paper presents a multi-modal emotion recognition system exploiting audio and video (i.e., facial expression) information. The system first processes both sources of information individually to produce corresponding matching scores and then combines the computed matching scores to obtain a classification decision. For the video part of the system, a novel approach to emotion recognition, relying on image-set matching, is developed. The proposed approach avoids the need for detecting and tracking specific facial landmarks throughout the given video sequence, which represents a common source of error in video-based emotion recognition systems, and, therefore, adds robustness to the video processing chain. The audio part of the system, on the other hand, relies on utterance-specific Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) adapted from a Universal Background Model (UBM) via the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation. It improves upon the standard UBM-MAP procedure by exploiting gender information when building the utterance-specific GMMs, thus ensuring enhanced emotion recognition performance. Both the uni-modal parts as well as the combined system are assessed on the challenging multi-modal eNTERFACE'05 corpus with highly encouraging results. The developed system represents a feasible solution to emotion recognition that can easily be integrated into various systems, such as humanoid robots, smart surveillance systems and alike.
Gajšek, Rok; Štruc, Vitomir; Mihelič, France
In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), pp. 4133-4136, IAPR Istanbul, Turkey, 2010.
The information of the psycho-physical state of the subject is becoming a valuable addition to the modern audio or video recognition systems. As well as enabling a better user experience, it can also assist in superior recognition accuracy of the base system. In the article, we present our approach to multi-modal (audio-video) emotion recognition system. For audio sub-system, a feature set comprised of prosodic, spectral and cepstrum features is selected and support vector classifier is used to produce the scores for each emotional category. For video sub-system a novel approach is presented, which does not rely on the tracking of specific facial landmarks and thus, eliminates the problems usually caused, if the tracking algorithm fails at detecting the correct area. The system is evaluated on the eNTERFACE database and the recognition accuracy of our audio-video fusion is compared to the published results in the literature.
Gajšek, Rok; Štruc, Vitomir; Mihelič, France
In: Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue (TSD), pp. 275-282, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
The standard features used in emotion recognition carry, besides the emotion related information, also cues about the speaker. This is expected, since the nature of emotionally colored speech is similar to the variations in the speech signal, caused by different speakers. Therefore, we present a gradient descent derived transformation for the decoupling of emotion and speaker information contained in the acoustic features. The Interspeech ’09 Emotion Challenge feature set is used as the baseline for the audio part. A similar procedure is employed on the video signal, where the nuisance attribute projection (NAP) is used to derive the transformation matrix, which contains information about the emotional state of the speaker. Ultimately, different NAP transformation matrices are compared using canonical correlations. The audio and video sub-systems are combined at the matching score level using different fusion techniques. The presented system is assessed on the publicly available eNTERFACE’05 database where significant improvements in the recognition performance are observed when compared to the stat-of-the-art baseline.