Vitek, M.; Das, A.; Pourcenoux, Y.; Missler, A.; Paumier, C.; Das, S.; Ghosh, I. De; Lucio, D. R.; Jr., L. A. Zanlorensi; Menotti, D.; Boutros, F.; Damer, N.; Grebe, J. H.; Kuijper, A.; Hu, J.; He, Y.; Wang, C.; Liu, H.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Z.; Osorio-Roig, D.; Rathgeb, C.; Busch, C.; Tapia, J.; Valenzuela, A.; Zampoukis, G.; Tsochatzidis, L.; Pratikakis, I.; Nathan, S.; Suganya, R.; Mehta, V.; Dhall, A.; Raja, K.; Gupta, G.; Khiarak, J. N.; Akbari-Shahper, M.; Jaryani, F.; Asgari-Chenaghlu, M.; Vyas, R.; Dakshit, S.; Dakshit, S.; Peer, P.; Pal, U.; Štruc, V.
In: International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2020), pp. 1–10, 2020.
The paper presents a summary of the 2020 Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition (SSBC), the 7th in the series of group benchmarking efforts centred around the problem of sclera segmentation. Different from previous editions, the goal of SSBC 2020 was to evaluate the performance of sclera-segmentation models on images captured with mobile devices. The competition was used as a platform to assess the sensitivity of existing models to i) differences in mobile devices used for image capture and ii) changes in the ambient acquisition conditions. 26 research groups registered for SSBC 2020, out of which 13 took part in the final round and submitted a total of 16 segmentation models for scoring. These included a wide variety of deep-learning solutions as well as one approach based on standard image processing techniques. Experiments were conducted with three recent datasets. Most of the segmentation models achieved relatively consistent performance across images captured with different mobile devices (with slight differences across devices), but struggled most with low-quality images captured in challenging ambient conditions, i.e., in an indoor environment and with poor lighting.
Vitek, Matej; Rot, Peter; Struc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter
In: Neural Computing and Applications, pp. 1-15, 2020.
The area of ocular biometrics is among the most popular branches of biometric recognition technology. This area has long been dominated by iris recognition research, while other ocular modalities such as the periocular region or the vasculature of the sclera have received significantly less attention in the literature. Consequently, ocular modalities beyond the iris are not well studied and their characteristics are today still not as well understood. While recent needs for more secure authentication schemes have considerably increased the interest in competing ocular modalities, progress in these areas is still held back by the lack of publicly available datasets that would allow for more targeted research into specific ocular characteristics next to the iris. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap for the case of sclera biometrics and introduce a novel dataset designed for research into ocular biometrics and most importantly for research into the vasculature of the sclera. Our dataset, called Sclera Blood Vessels, Periocular and Iris (SBVPI), is, to the best of our knowledge, the first publicly available dataset designed specifically with research in sclera biometrics in mind. The dataset contains high-quality RGB ocular images, captured in the visible spectrum, belonging to 55 subjects. Unlike competing datasets, it comes with manual markups of various eye regions, such as the iris, pupil, canthus or eyelashes and a detailed pixel-wise annotation of the complete sclera vasculature for a subset of the images. Additionally, the datasets ship with gender and age labels. The unique characteristics of the dataset allow us to study aspects of sclera biometrics technology that have not been studied before in the literature (e.g. vasculature segmentation techniques) as well as issues that are of key importance for practical recognition systems. Thus, next to the SBVPI dataset we also present in this paper a comprehensive investigation into sclera biometrics and the main covariates that affect the performance of sclera segmentation and recognition techniques, such as gender, age, gaze direction or image resolution. Our experiments not only demonstrate the usefulness of the newly introduced dataset, but also contribute to a better understanding of sclera biometrics in general.
Rot, Peter; Vitek, Matej; Grm, Klemen; Emeršič, Žiga; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir
Deep Sclera Segmentation and Recognition Incollection
In: Uhl, Andreas; Busch, Christoph; Marcel, Sebastien; Veldhuis, Rainer (Ed.): Handbook of Vascular Biometrics, pp. 395-432, Springer, 2019, ISBN: 978-3-030-27731-4.
In this chapter, we address the problem of biometric identity recognition from the vasculature of the human sclera. Specifically, we focus on the challenging task of multi-view sclera recognition, where the visible part of the sclera vasculature changes from image to image due to varying gaze (or view) directions. We propose a complete solution for this task built around Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and make several contributions that result in state-of-the-art recognition performance, i.e.: (i) we develop a cascaded CNN assembly that is able to robustly segment the sclera vasculature from the input images regardless of gaze direction, and (ii) we present ScleraNET, a CNN model trained in a multi-task manner (combining losses pertaining to identity and view-direction recognition) that allows for the extraction of discriminative vasculature descriptors that can be used for identity inference. To evaluate the proposed contributions, we also introduce a new dataset of ocular images, called the Sclera Blood Vessels, Periocular and Iris (SBVPI) dataset, which represents one of the few publicly available datasets suitable for research in multi-view sclera segmentation and recognition. The datasets come with a rich set of annotations, such as a per-pixel markup of various eye parts (including the sclera vasculature), identity, gaze-direction and gender labels. We conduct rigorous experiments on SBVPI with competing techniques from the literature and show that the combination of the proposed segmentation and descriptor-computation models results in highly competitive recognition performance.
Rot, Peter; Emeršič, Žiga; Struc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter
Deep multi-class eye segmentation for ocular biometrics Inproceedings
In: 2018 IEEE International Work Conference on Bioinspired Intelligence (IWOBI), pp. 1–8, IEEE 2018.
Segmentation techniques for ocular biometrics typically focus on finding a single eye region in the input image at the time. Only limited work has been done on multi-class eye segmentation despite a number of obvious advantages. In this paper we address this gap and present a deep multi-class eye segmentation model build around the SegNet architecture. We train the model on a small dataset (of 120 samples) of eye images and observe it to generalize well to unseen images and to ensure highly accurate segmentation results. We evaluate the model on the Multi-Angle Sclera Database (MASD) dataset and describe comprehensive experiments focusing on: i) segmentation performance, ii) error analysis, iii) the sensitivity of the model to changes in view direction, and iv) comparisons with competing single-class techniques. Our results show that the proposed model is viable solution for multi-class eye segmentation suitable for recognition (multi-biometric) pipelines based on ocular characteristics.
Das, Abhijit; Pal, Umapada; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Blumenstein, Michael; Štepec, Dejan; Rot, Peter; Emeršič, Žiga; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir
SSBC 2018: Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition Inproceedings
In: 2018 International Conference on Biometrics (ICB), 2018.
This paper summarises the results of the Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition (SSBC 2018). It was organised in the context of the 11th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB 2018). The aim of this competition was to record the developments on sclera segmentation in the cross-sensor environment (sclera trait captured using multiple acquiring sensors). Additionally, the competition also aimed to gain the attention of researchers on this subject of research. For the purpose of benchmarking, we have developed two datasets of sclera images captured using different sensors. The first dataset was collected using a DSLR camera and the second one was collected using a mobile phone camera. The first dataset is the Multi-Angle Sclera Dataset (MASD version 1), which was used in the context of the previous versions of sclera segmentation competitions. The images in the second dataset were captured using .a mobile phone rear camera of 8-megapixel. As baseline manual segmentation mask of the sclera images from both the datasets were developed. Precision and recall-based statistical measures were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the submitted segmentation technique and to rank them. Six algorithms were submitted towards the segmentation task. This paper analyses the results produced by these algorithms/system and defines a way forward for this subject of research. Both the datasets along with some of the accompanying ground truth/baseline mask will be freely available for research purposes upon request to authors by email.
Das, Abhijit; Pal, Umapada; Ferrer, Miguel A; Blumenstein, Michael; Štepec, Dejan; Rot, Peter; Emeršič, Ziga; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir; Kumar, SV Aruna; S, Harish B
In: 2017 IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB), pp. 742–747, IEEE 2017.
This paper summarises the results of the Sclera Segmentation and Eye Recognition Benchmarking Competition (SSERBC 2017). It was organised in the context of the International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2017). The aim of this competition was to record the recent developments in sclera segmentation and eye recognition in the visible spectrum (using iris, sclera and peri-ocular, and their fusion), and also to gain the attention of researchers on this subject.
In this regard, we have used the Multi-Angle Sclera Dataset (MASD version 1). It is comprised of 2624 images taken from both the eyes of 82 identities. Therefore, it consists of images of 164 (82*2) eyes. A manual segmentation mask of these images was created to baseline both tasks.
Precision and recall based statistical measures were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the segmentation and the ranks of the segmentation task. Recognition accuracy measure has been employed to measure the recognition task. Manually segmented sclera, iris and periocular regions were used in the recognition task. Sixteen teams registered for the competition, and among them, six teams submitted their algorithms or systems for the segmentation task and two of them submitted their recognition algorithm or systems.
The results produced by these algorithms or systems reflect current developments in the literature of sclera segmentation and eye recognition, employing cutting edge techniques. The MASD version 1 dataset with some of the ground truth will be freely available for research purposes. The success of the competition also demonstrates the recent interests of researchers from academia as well as industry on this subject