Publications

162 entries « 1 of 4 »

2022

Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Yucheng; Zhub, Qingyi; Jain, Deepak Kumar; Struc, Vitomir

DHF-Net: A hierarchical feature interactive fusion network for dialogue emotion recognition Journal Article

In: Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 210, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: attention, CNN, deep learning, dialogue, emotion recognition, fusion, fusion network, nlp, semantics, text, text processing

Tomašević, Darian; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

BiOcularGAN: Bimodal Synthesis and Annotation of Ocular Images Inproceedings

In: IEEE/IAPR International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2022) , pp. 1-10, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, data synthesis, deep learning, ocular, segmentation, StyleGAN, synthetic data

Vitek, Matej; Das, Abhijit; Lucio, Diego Rafael; Jr., Luiz Antonio Zanlorensi; Menotti, David; Khiarak, Jalil Nourmohammadi; Shahpar, Mohsen Akbari; Asgari-Chenaghlu, Meysam; Jaryani, Farhang; Tapia, Juan E.; Valenzuela, Andres; Wang, Caiyong; Wang, Yunlong; He, Zhaofeng; Sun, Zhenan; Boutros, Fadi; Damer, Naser; Grebe, Jonas Henry; Kuijper, Arjan; Raja, Kiran; Gupta, Gourav; Zampoukis, Georgios; Tsochatzidis, Lazaros; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Kumar, S. V. Aruna; Harish, B. S.; Pal, Umapada; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Exploring Bias in Sclera Segmentation Models: A Group Evaluation Approach Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 2022, ISSN: 1556-6013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: bias, biometrics, fairness, group evaluation, ocular, sclera, sclera segmentation, segmentation

Ivanovska, Marija; Kronovšek, Andrej; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir; Batagelj, Borut

Face Morphing Attack Detection Using Privacy-Aware Training Data Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2022, pp. 1-4, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: competition, face, face morphing, face morphing attack, face morphing detection, private data, synthetic data

Šircelj, Jaka; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc; Štruc, Vitomir

Hierarchical Superquadric Decomposition with Implicit Space Separation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2022, pp. 1-4, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, deep learning, depth estimation, iterative procedure, model fitting, recursive model, superquadric, superquadrics, volumetric primitive

Grm, Klemen; Štruc, Vitomir

Optimization-based Image Filter Design for Self-supervised Super-resolution Training Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2022, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags:

Babnik, Žiga; Štruc, Vitomir

Iterativna optimizacija ocen kakovosti slikovnih podatkov v sistemih za razpoznavanje obrazov Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2022, pp. 1-4, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, face image quality estimation, face quality, face recognition, optimization, supervised quality estimation

Tomašecić, Darian; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc; Jaklič, Aleš; Štruc, Vitomir

Reconstructing Superquadrics from Intensity and Color Images Journal Article

In: Sensors, vol. 22, iss. 4, no. 5332, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: arrs, CNN, depth data, depth estimation, depth sensing, intensity images, superquadric, superquadrics

Babnik, Žiga; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

FaceQAN: Face Image Quality Assessment Through Adversarial Noise Exploration Inproceedings

In: IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: adversarial examples, adversarial noise, biometrics, face image quality assessment, face recognition, FIQA, image quality assessment

Babnik, Žiga; Štruc, Vitomir

Assessing Bias in Face Image Quality Assessment Inproceedings

In: EUSIPCO 2022, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: bias, bias analysis, biometrics, face image quality assessment, face recognition, FIQA, image quality assessment

Osorio-Roig, Daile; Rathgeb, Christian; Drozdowski, Pawel; Terhörst, Philipp; Štruc, Vitomir; Busch, Christoph

An Attack on Feature Level-based Facial Soft-biometric Privacy Enhancement Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Biometrics, Identity and Behavior (TBIOM), 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: attack, face recognition, privacy, privacy enhancement, privacy protection, privacy-enhancing techniques, soft biometric privacy

Dvoršak, Grega; Dwivedi, Ankita; Štruc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter; Emeršič, Žiga

Kinship Verification from Ear Images: An Explorative Study with Deep Learning Models Inproceedings

In: International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF), pp. 1–6, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, deep learning, ear, ear biometrics, kinear, kinship, kinship recognition, transformer

Jug, Julijan; Lampe, Ajda; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Segmentacija telesa z uporabo večciljnega učenja Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of Rosus 2022, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: deepbeauty, računalniški vid, segmentacija

Križaj, Janez; Dobrišek, Simon; Štruc, Vitomir

Making the most of single sensor information : a novel fusion approach for 3D face recognition using region covariance descriptors and Gaussian mixture models Journal Article

In: Sensors, iss. 6, no. 2388, pp. 1-26, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3d face, biometrics, face, face analysis, face images, face recognition

Jug, Julijan; Lampe, Ajda; Štruc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter

Body Segmentation Using Multi-task Learning Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC), IEEE, 2022, ISBN: 978-1-6654-5818-4.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: body segmentation, cn, CNN, computer vision, deep beauty, deep learning, multi-task learning, segmentation, virtual try-on

Fele, Benjamin; Lampe, Ajda; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

C-VTON: Context-Driven Image-Based Virtual Try-On Network Inproceedings

In: IEEE/CVF Winter Applications in Computer Vision (WACV), pp. 1–10, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: computer vision, deepbeauty, fashion, generative models, image editing, try-on, virtual try-on

Stoimchev, Marjan; Ivanovska, Marija; Štruc, Vitomir

Learning to Combine Local and Global Image Information for Contactless Palmprint Recognition Journal Article

In: Sensors, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-26, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics; computer vision; deep learning; palmprints

Rot, Peter; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Detecting Soft-Biometric Privacy Enhancement Incollection

In: Rathgeb, Christian; Tolosana, Ruben; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Busch, Christoph (Ed.): Handbook of Digital Face Manipulation and Detection, 2022.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, face, privacy, privacy enhancement, privacy-enhancing techniques, soft biometric privacy

Tolosana, Ruben; Rathgeb, Christian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Busch, Christoph; Verdilova, Luisa; Lyu, Siwei; Nguyen, Huy H.; Yamagishi, Junichi; Echizen, Isao; Rot, Peter; Grm, Klemen; Štruc, Vitomir; Datcheva, Antitza; Akhtar, Zahid; Romero-Tapiador, Sergio; Fierrez, Julian; Morales, Aythami; Ortega-Garcia, Javier; Kindt, Els; Jasserand, Catherine; Kalvet, Tarmo; Tiits, Marek

Future Trends in Digital Face Manipulation and Detection Incollection

In: Rathgeb, Christian; Tolosana, Ruben; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Busch, Christoph (Ed.): Handbook of Digital Face Manipulation and Detection, pp. 463–482, 2022, ISBN: 978-3-030-87663-0.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags:

2021

Emeršič, Žiga; Sušanj, Diego; Meden, Blaž; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

ContexedNet : Context-Aware Ear Detection in Unconstrained Settings Journal Article

In: IEEE Access, pp. 1–17, 2021, ISSN: 2169-3536.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, contextual information, deep leraning, ear detection, ear recognition, ear segmentation, neural networks, segmentation

Ivanovska, Marija; Štruc, Vitomir

A Comparative Study on Discriminative and One--Class Learning Models for Deepfake Detection Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2021, pp. 1–4, 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, comparative study, computer vision, deepfake detection, deepfakes, detection, face, one-class learning

Grm, Klemen; Vitomir, Štruc

Frequency Band Encoding for Face Super-Resolution Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of ERK 2021, pp. 1-4, 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, deep learning, face, face hallucination, frequency encoding, super-resolution

Boutros, Fadi; Damer, Naser; Kolf, Jan Niklas; Raja, Kiran; Kirchbuchner, Florian; Ramachandra, Raghavendra; Kuijper, Arjan; Fang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fei; Montero, David; Aginako, Naiara; Sierra, Basilio; Nieto, Marcos; Erakin, Mustafa Ekrem; Demir, Ugur; Ekenel, Hazım Kemal; Kataoka, Asaki; Ichikawa, Kohei; Kubo, Shizuma; Zhang, Jie; He, Mingjie; Han, Dan; Shan, Shiguang; Grm, Klemen; Štruc, Vitomir; Seneviratne, Sachith; Kasthuriarachchi, Nuran; Rasnayaka, Sanka; Neto, Pedro C.; Sequeira, Ana F.; Pinto, Joao Ribeiro; Saffari, Mohsen; Cardoso, Jaime S.

MFR 2021: Masked Face Recognition Competition Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2021), 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, face recognition, masks

Wang, Caiyong; Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Kunbo; Muhammad, Jawad; Lu, Tianhao; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qichuan; He, Zhaofeng; Sun, Zhenan; Zhang, Yiwen; Liu, Tianbao; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dongliang; Liu, Yingfeng; Zhou, Ruiye; Wu, Huihai; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Junbao; Wang, Jiayi; Xiong, Wantong; Shi, Xueyu; Zeng, Shao; Li, Peihua; Sun, Haodong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jiale; Wang, Qi; Wu, Huijie; Zhang, Xinhui; Li, Haiqing; Chen, Yu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Menghan; Sun, Ye; Zhou, Zhiyong; Boutros, Fadi; Damer, Naser; Kuijper, Arjan; Tapia, Juan; Valenzuela, Andres; Busch, Christoph; Gupta, Gourav; Raja, Kiran; Wu, Xi; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Jingfu; Jing, Hongyan; Wang, Xin; Kong, Bin; Yin, Youbing; Song, Qi; Lyu, Siwei; Hu, Shu; Premk, Leon; Vitek, Matej; Štruc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter; Khiarak, Jalil Nourmohammadi; Jaryani, Farhang; Nasab, Samaneh Salehi; Moafinejad, Seyed Naeim; Amini, Yasin; Noshad, Morteza

NIR Iris Challenge Evaluation in Non-cooperative Environments: Segmentation and Localization Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2021), 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, competition, iris, segmentation

Peter Rot Blaz Meden, Philipp Terhorst

Privacy-Enhancing Face Biometrics: A Comprehensive Survey Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 16, pp. 4147-4183, 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, deidentification, face analysis, face deidentification, face recognition, face verification, FaceGEN, privacy, privacy protection, privacy-enhancing techniques, soft biometric privacy

Pevec, Klemen; Grm, Klemen; Štruc, Vitomir

Benchmarking Crowd-Counting Techniques across Image Characteristics Journal Article

In: Elektorethniski Vestnik, vol. 88, iss. 5, pp. 227-235, 2021.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, crowd counting, drones, image characteristics, model comparison, neural networks

Batagelj, Borut; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir; Dobrišek, Simon

How to correctly detect face-masks for COVID-19 from visual information? Journal Article

In: Applied sciences, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1-24, 2021, ISBN: 2076-3417.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: computer vision, COVID-19, deep learning, detection, face, mask detection, recognition

Oblak, Tim; Šircelj, Jaka; Struc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc; Jaklic, Aleš

Learning to predict superquadric parameters from depth images with explicit and implicit supervision Journal Article

In: IEEE Access, pp. 1-16, 2021, ISSN: 2169-3536.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3d, computer vision, depth images, differential renderer, recovery, superquadric

Pernus, Martin; Struc, Vitomir; Dobrisek, Simon

High Resolution Face Editing with Masked GAN Latent Code Optimization Journal Article

In: CoRR, vol. abs/2103.11135, 2021.

Links | BibTeX | Tags:

2020

Bortolato, Blaž; Ivanovska, Marija; Rot, Peter; Križaj, Janez; Terhorst, Philipp; Damer, Naser; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Learning privacy-enhancing face representations through feature disentanglement Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of FG 2020, IEEE, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: autoencoder, biometrics, CNN, disentaglement, face recognition, PFRNet, privacy, representation learning

Vitek, M.; Das, A.; Pourcenoux, Y.; Missler, A.; Paumier, C.; Das, S.; Ghosh, I. De; Lucio, D. R.; Jr., L. A. Zanlorensi; Menotti, D.; Boutros, F.; Damer, N.; Grebe, J. H.; Kuijper, A.; Hu, J.; He, Y.; Wang, C.; Liu, H.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Z.; Osorio-Roig, D.; Rathgeb, C.; Busch, C.; Tapia, J.; Valenzuela, A.; Zampoukis, G.; Tsochatzidis, L.; Pratikakis, I.; Nathan, S.; Suganya, R.; Mehta, V.; Dhall, A.; Raja, K.; Gupta, G.; Khiarak, J. N.; Akbari-Shahper, M.; Jaryani, F.; Asgari-Chenaghlu, M.; Vyas, R.; Dakshit, S.; Dakshit, S.; Peer, P.; Pal, U.; Štruc, V.

SSBC 2020: Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition in the Mobile Environment Inproceedings

In: International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2020), pp. 1–10, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, competition IJCB, ocular, sclera, segmentation, SSBC

Marco Huber Philipp Terhörst, Naser Damer

Privacy Evaluation Protocols for the Evaluation of Soft-Biometric Privacy-Enhancing Technologies Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) 2020, pp. 1-5, IEEE, 2020, ISSN: 1617-5468.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: face recognition, privacy, privacy protection, soft biometric privacy

Puc, Andraž; Štruc, Vitomir; Grm, Klemen

Analysis of Race and Gender Bias in Deep Age Estimation Model Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of EUSIPCO 2020, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: age estimation, bias, bias analysis, biometrics, face analysis

Terhorst, Philipp; Riehl, Kevin; Damer, Naser; Rot, Peter; Bortolato, Blaz; Kirchbuchner, Florian; Struc, Vitomir; Kuijper, Arjan

PE-MIU: a training-free privacy-enhancing face recognition approach based on minimum information units Journal Article

In: IEEE Access, vol. 2020, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, face recognition, minimal information units, privacy, soft biometric privacy, soft biometrics

Šircelj, Jaka; Oblak, Tim; Grm, Klemen; Petković, Uroš; Jaklič, Aleš; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir; Solina, Franc

Segmentation and Recovery of Superquadric Models using Convolutional Neural Networks Inproceedings

In: 25th Computer Vision Winter Workshop (CVWW 2020), 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, convolutional neural networks, segmentation, superquadrics, volumetric data

Stepec, Dejan; Emersic, Ziga; Peer, Peter; Struc, Vitomir

Constellation-Based Deep Ear Recognition Incollection

In: Jiang, R.; Li, CT.; Crookes, D.; Meng, W.; Rosenberger, C. (Ed.): Deep Biometrics: Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning, Springer, 2020, ISBN: 978-3-030-32582-4.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, deep learning, ear recognition, neural networks

Grm, Klemen; Scheirer, Walter J.; Štruc, Vitomir

Face hallucination using cascaded super-resolution and identity priors Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, computer vision, deep learning, face, face hallucination, super-resolution

Vitek, Matej; Rot, Peter; Struc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter

A comprehensive investigation into sclera biometrics: a novel dataset and performance study Journal Article

In: Neural Computing and Applications, pp. 1-15, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, dataset, multi-view, ocular, performance study, recognition, sclera, segmentation, visible light

2019

Rot, Peter; Vitek, Matej; Grm, Klemen; Emeršič, Žiga; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Deep Sclera Segmentation and Recognition Incollection

In: Uhl, Andreas; Busch, Christoph; Marcel, Sebastien; Veldhuis, Rainer (Ed.): Handbook of Vascular Biometrics, pp. 395-432, Springer, 2019, ISBN: 978-3-030-27731-4.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, CNN, deep learning, ocular, sclera, segmentation, vasculature

Krizaj, Janez; Peer, Peter; Struc, Vitomir; Dobrisek, Simon

Simultaneous multi-decent regression and feature learning for landmarking in depth image Journal Article

In: Neural Computing and Applications, 2019, ISBN: 0941-0643.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3d, biometrics, depth data, face alignment, face analysis, landmarking

Oblak, Tim; Grm, Klemen; Jaklič, Aleš; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir; Solina, Franc

Recovery of Superquadrics from Range Images using Deep Learning: A Preliminary Study Inproceedings

In: 2019 IEEE International Work Conference on Bioinspired Intelligence (IWOBI), pp. 45-52, IEEE, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: CNN, convolutional neural networks, superquadrics, volumetric data

Emeršič, Žiga; V., A. Kumar S.; Harish, B. S.; Gutfeter, W.; Khiarak, J. N.; Pacut, A.; Hansley, E.; Segundo, M. Pamplona; Sarkar, S.; Park, H.; Nam, G. Pyo; Kim, I. J.; Sangodkar, S. G.; Kacar, U.; Kirci, M.; Yuan, L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, H.; Lu, F.; Mao, J.; Zhang, X.; Yaman, D.; Eyiokur, F. I.; Ozler, K. B.; Ekenel, H. K.; Chowdhury, D. Paul; Bakshi, S.; Sa, P. K.; Majhni, B.; Peer, P.; Štruc, V.

The Unconstrained Ear Recognition Challenge 2019 Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Biometrics (ICB 2019), 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, ear, ear recognitoin, uerc 2019

Grm, Klemen; Pernus, Martin; Cluzel, Leo; Scheirer, Walter J.; Dobrisek, Simon; Struc, Vitomir

Face Hallucination Revisited: An Exploratory Study on Dataset Bias Inproceedings

In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: dataset bias, face, face hallucination, super-resolution

Kovač, Jure; Štruc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter

Frame-based classification for cross-speed gait recognition Journal Article

In: Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 5621–5643, 2019, ISSN: 1573-7721.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, gait recognition

Lozej, Juš; Štepec, Dejan; Štruc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter

Influence of segmentation on deep iris recognition performance Inproceedings

In: 7th IAPR/IEEE International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF 2019), 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, iris, ocular, segmentation

Ziga, Emersic; Janez, Krizaj; Vitomir, Struc; Peter, Peer

Deep ear recognition pipeline Incollection

In: Mahmoud, Hassaballah; M., Hosny Khalid (Ed.): Recent advances in computer vision : theories and applications, vol. 804, Springer, 2019, ISBN: 1860-9503.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: ear, ear recognition, pipeline

Križaj, Janez; Perš, Janez; Dobrišek, Simon; Štruc, Vitomir

Sistem nadgrajene resničnosti za verifikacijo predmetov v skladiščnih okoljih Journal Article

In: Elektrotehniski Vestnik, vol. 86, no. 1/2, pp. 1–6, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: augmented reality, IoT, smart sensors, wearables

2018

Križaj, Janez; Emeršič, Žiga; Dobrišek, Simon; Peer, Peter; Štruc, Vitomir

Localization of Facial Landmarks in Depth Images Using Gated Multiple Ridge Descent Inproceedings

In: 2018 IEEE International Work Conference on Bioinspired Intelligence (IWOBI), pp. 1–8, IEEE 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3d face, 3d landmarking, face alignment, face landmarking, gated ridge descent

Kristan, Matej; Leonardis, Ales; Matas, Jiri; Felsberg, Michael; Pflugfelder, Roman; Zajc, Luka Cehovin; Vojir, Tomas; Bhat, Goutam; Lukezic, Alan; Eldesokey, Abdelrahman; Štruc, Vitomir; Grm, Klemen; others,

The sixth visual object tracking VOT2018 challenge results Inproceedings

In: European Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ECCV-W 2018), 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: benchmark, tracking, VOT

Rot, Peter; Emeršič, Žiga; Struc, Vitomir; Peer, Peter

Deep multi-class eye segmentation for ocular biometrics Inproceedings

In: 2018 IEEE International Work Conference on Bioinspired Intelligence (IWOBI), pp. 1–8, IEEE 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biometrics, eye, ocular, sclera, segmentation

162 entries « 1 of 4 »